Review on the recycling of plastic packaging mater

2022-09-19
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Review on the recycling of plastic packaging materials waste in various countries (3)

3 packaging waste treatment methods

Plastic packaging waste belongs to the category of MSW, and its treatment methods also mainly include landfilling, incineration, recycling, etc.

in the 1990s, the management of MSW in various countries in the world also had great differences in treatment methods due to different national conditions, but the main developed countries were limited to historical conditions and technical and economic levels in the past, They are mainly landfilled and incinerated, such as 72% landfilled, 13% incinerated and 17% recycled in the United States, and 53%, 26% and 21% recycled in France respectively; Japan accounts for 10%, 30% and 20% respectively, and most countries in Europe are mainly incinerated, such as end soil accounting for 80%, Denmark for 75%, and Germany for more than 50%. In the UK, 83% of the cities adopt various standard setting methods of landfills. The combination of biodegradable plastics and composting developed in recent years is promoting the progress of MSW treatment technology and attracting worldwide attention

since the end of last century, with the increasing tension of resources and energy, and the increasing environmental pollution, how to effectively and reasonably use resources, save energy, and strengthen the treatment and recycling of MSW has become a global focus. In order to maintain the ecological environment, strengthen the utilization of resources and deal with waste, the EU took the lead in formulating the sequence of waste and the highest guiding strategy as the guiding principle for the formulation and implementation of relevant laws in EU countries. This principle also plays a good guiding role in MSW processing in countries all over the world

3.1 sequence of waste treatment

① reduce

② reuse

③ recycling (recycling, including materials, chemicals, fertilizers)

④ incineration and recycling of heat energy

⑤ landfill treatment

3.2 highest principle of waste treatment

· guiding principle of packaging material recycling - since 1994, the European Union, Within 8 years, the recycling rate of various packaging materials must reach 25~40%, and the proportion of heat energy recovered by incineration must reach 50~65%

· guidelines for waste disposal and landfilling - in recent years, the EU is strengthening resource recycling and gradually reducing the proportion of landfilling. Based on the amount of waste landfilling in 1995, it is required to drop to 75% in 2006, 50% in 2009 and 35% in 2016. In addition, in order to prevent the emission of harmful gases such as CO2 and methane (CH4) from landfills that will lead to the greenhouse effect, and to prevent groundwater pollution caused by injection and leaching, the EU prohibits the treatment of organic waste by landfill

· guidelines for composting - the advantages of composting are that it can reduce the greenhouse effect caused by emissions of CO2, CH4 and other gases, increase the content of organic matter in the soil, improve the physical and chemical properties of the soil, promote green manure agriculture, and serve as a collection of "carbon" to achieve the purpose of resource reuse. The European Union actively guides composting treatment methods, and stipulates that heavy metals in composting raw materials must meet relevant standards, so as to control the quality of composting, Prevent the soil from being polluted by heavy metals

3.3 environmental protection "green dot" sign

the certification system of environmental protection packaging is ISO14000. This environmental management certification is known as the "green passport" recognized by the international market. At present, most countries in the world use this as a standard to promote environmental protection packaging mode. ISO14000 series expressly stipulates that all internationally purchased products (packaging) should be subject to environmental certification and ecological assessment (LCA) and use environmental labels

Europe is implementing and improving green certification policies and regulations. At present, eight countries have begun to implement the green certification system. Commodities without environmental management certification will be limited in quantity and price at the time of import

1975, the world's first green packaging "green dot" logo was published in Germany. It is a circular pattern composed of green arrows and white arrows, and the text above is composed of German der grune Punkt, which means "green dot". The double color arrow of the green dot indicates that the product or package is green and can be recycled, which meets the requirements of ecological balance and environmental protection. In 1977, the German government launched the "Blue Angel" green environmental protection logo, granting products and packaging with green environmental protection characteristics

after the use of "environmental labels" in Germany, Canada, Japan, the United States, Australia, Finland, France, Switzerland, Sweden, Norway, Italy, the United Kingdom and other countries have also begun to implement environmental labels for product packaging. For example, "Maple Dove" in Canada, "love the earth" in Japan, "nature friendly" and certificate system "in the United States," environmental symbol "in China," flower of Europe "in the European community," white swan "in Denmark, Finland, Sweden, Norway and other Nordic countries," NF "logo in France," ecological logo "in Austria," ecological logo "in India," ecological logo "in South Korea," green logo "in Singapore, New Zealand's "environmental choice", Portugal's "ecological products" and Croatia's "environmental friendliness" are all representatives

countries around the world have also formulated green product signs, but the names of ecological signs in various countries are different, such as the "EPA mark" in the United States, the "EV system" in Canada, the "ecological standard system" in Japan, and the "NF environment" in France. At present, the most successful ecological signs in the world are "Blue Angel" in Germany and "eco mark" in Japan, which processes this signal by single chip microcomputer

(to be continued)

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